Harano Y et al 2002

Insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia have been observed in over 70% of the nonobese, nondiabetic subjects with essential hypertension (HT)…. Alpha-1 blockers, ACE-antagonists, long-acting Ca blockers including nifedipine CR, beta-blockers, tilisolor…serum potassium…intraplatelet free Ca(2+)…altered intracellular cation metabolism….effort as well as vasospastic angina pectoris (VSAP)…atherothrombotic cerebral infarction…ASO without obesity, HT, or diabetes…endothelial dysfunction…heart failure…angiotensin II…hypertrophic cardiomyopathy …TNF-alpha… These results indicate that insulin resistance seem to be multifactorial. An effort to normalize insulin sensitivity is crucial to eliminate multiple risk factors as well as to prevent the progression of atherosclerotic vascular lesions.


Henriksen EJ et al 2001

Effects of oral administration of the angiotensin II receptor antagonist (selective AT(1)-subtype) irbesartan on glucose tolerance and insulin action on skeletal-muscle glucose transport were assessed in the insulin-resistant obese Zucker rat….Chronic irbesartan-induced increases in whole-body insulin sensitivity were associated with increased insulin-mediated glucose transport …in muscle…Angiotensin II receptor (AT(1)-subtype) antagonism… improves glucose tolerance, at least in part because of an enhancement in skeletal-muscle glucose transport, and the effect of chronic angiotensin II receptor antagonism on type I skeletal-muscle glucose uptake is associated with an increase in GLUT-4 protein expression.