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angina AND insulin resistance

By Dr Allen E Gale

September 27 1996 Latest revision May 23 2002

In Greek mythology, Pandora was given a box by her father, Zeus, when she left home. But Zeus told her never to open the box! But female curiosity got the better of her on the voyage ------- the rest is history!


Insulin resistance is now documented in the Textbooks of Medicine as being implicated in a wide spectrum of diseases. The most appropriate name for this syndrome - which has initially been referred to as Syndrome X, insulin resistance syndrome, or metabolic syndrome - is surely "Pandora's Box". The good news for the sufferers of any one of the manifestations of metabolic syndrome is that the one spirit that remained in Pandora's Box was hope!

The following is an index of diseases associated with insulin resistance (IR). At first sight it may seem improbable that the clinical features which I have "found" in Pandora's Box are all associated with IR. But if you follow the links on my pages you will discover that IR, like our blood pressure and body temperature is a normal phenomenon. But abnormalities of IR are associated with virtually every disease process!

The diversity of clinical features of Pandora's Box Syndrome would appear to be due to the differing mechanisms involved which are capable of inducing IR. At present there is no laboratory method of evaluating which one or more of the IR mechanisms is operative in an individual. Again it has been stated that "as the insulin - resistant state worsens, a post-receptor defect emerges, and in obese subjects with the most severe degree of insulin resistance, the post-receptor defect is the predominant abnormality." Harrison's 1995 Quite clearly, at least in some cases, the mechanism of insulin resistance changes with the progression of the disease.

The clinical features of insulin resistance include:-


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Page modified on May 29 2002